II: POLITICAL STRUCTURE
FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Ethiopia will be a Federal Democratic
Republic with self-governing autonomous regions. These regions will
be determined by a national assembly composed of representatives from
the population, in accordance with the constitution. The constitution
will be drafted by an elected constituent assembly that represents
the people at large and it shall be ratified in a referendum.
2.2 NATIONAL FLAG
The national flag as represented by green,
yellow, and red colors, a historically and internationally recognized
symbol of Ethiopian identity, will remain unchanged and be flown in
all the republic's regions and government bodies as well as foreign
embassies and consulates.
2.3 GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE
Ethiopia will have two basic state structures,
as defined in the constitution.
2.3.1 Federal (Central) Government
2.3.2 Autonomous Regional Governments
2.4 GOVERNMENT BRANCHES
There will be three branches of government
in each of the two state structures.
2.5 NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
2.5.1;There will be a Federal National
Assembly composed of representatives from the people elected according
to the democratic principle of "one person one vote." Election
rules and procedures will be determined by law.
2.5.2;Based on the constitution, the
National Assembly will be the highest authority of the Federal Government.
The leader of the political party or of a coalition, with the majority
of members in the National Assembly, will lead the administration
of the Federal government as its Prime Minster.
2.5.3;In case of conflict, the Federal
law will have precedence over the autonomous regional laws.
2.6 PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC
2.6.1 The President of the Federal Republic
will be elected from among the National Assembly members. (S)he will
be elected by members of the National Assembly to be the head of state
for a limited term.
2.6.2 The president's authority, responsibilities
and term of office will be determined by the constitution.
2.7 AUTONOMOUS REGIONAL ASSEMBLIES
2.7.1 There will be a Regional Assembly
in each autonomous region. The Assembly will
consist of all the representatives from
the region who will be elected according to the democratic principle
of "one person one vote." The election rules and regulations
for the Assembly will be determined by law.
2.7.2 The Regional Assembly is the source
of authority of the autonomous region. The election, authority, and
responsibilities of the executive branch will be determined by the
2.8 COURTS OF LAW
The courts of the land will be divided
2.8.1 Federal Courts
2.8.2 Autonomous Regional Courts
2.9 APPEALS COURTS.
2.9.1 Appeals Courts will be established
in both the Federal and Regional state structures.
2.9.2 The Federal Supreme Court will
be the ultimate authority to safeguard the citizens' basic human and
democratic rights as well as being the country's highest court of
2.9.3 The Federal Supreme Court will
interpret the country's laws, based on the constitution.
2.10 THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S AUTHORITY
2.10.1 The Federal Government represents
all the Ethiopian people and safeguards their national interests.
The central government will have the following authority and responsibilities
mandated by the constitution.
2.10.2 It will legislate and execute
laws so as to meet its national responsibilities.
2.10.3 It will coordinate the administration
of the Autonomous Regions.
2.10.4 It will ensure peace and stability
in the country. It will safeguard the human and democratic rights
of the people.
2.10.5 It will ensure the growth of an
efficient free trade system among the economies of the Autonomous
Regions, including the free flow of people, goods and services across
2.10.6 It will ensure extension and development
of transportation and communication networks among the Autonomous
2.10.7 It shall have jurisdiction over
the National Bank and oversee the printing of notes and minting of
coins and the valuation and distribution of same.
2.10.8 It will establish one common national
currency. It will produce national guidelines, laws, rules, and regulations
for national finance and budgetary policies. It will implement these,
once approved by the Federal Assembly.
2.10.9 In cooperation with the Autonomous
Regional governments, it will build basic and key infrastructural
networks to enhance economic development. These include, among few
other limited joint operations, mining, power sources as well as land,
sea, and air transportation systems.
2.10.10 It will direct and coordinate
the country's foreign trade.
2.10.11 As determined by the Federal
Assembly, it will issue guidelines to generate and collect revenue
for the central government by means of taxation and other fiscal measures.
2.10.12 It will initiate and direct foreign
policy, establish diplomatic relations with foreign nations and sign
2.10.13 It will defend the country from
foreign aggression, and upon the approval of the National Assembly
will declare war and sign peace treaties. It will safeguard the internationally
recognized boundaries of Ethiopia including its islands, ports, and
2.10.14 It will direct the National Defence
Forces (ground, sea, and air). It will ensure that the forces reflect
the national character of Ethiopia. It will also ensure that the defence
forces are free of political influences and maintain their professional
character without playing any political role in the country.
2.10.15;It will select, promote and enhance
the working language of the Federal Government.
2.10.16;It will give special attention
to the betterment of less developed autonomous regions.
2.10.17;In cooperation with the regional
autonomous governments, it will protect and develop the national wealth
(forestry, rivers, land, etc.). It will establish governmental institutions
to achieve national goals and objectives. It will own properties that
will enable it to carry out its federal responsibilities.
2.10.18;It will execute all other resolutions
made by the Federal Assembly.
2.11 AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES
OF THE AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENTS
2.11.1 Based on the constitution, each
of the autonomous regional governments, as the defender of peace and
the vital interests of the people, will have the following powers
2.11.2 It will be the superior administrator
of the autonomous regions. It will also safeguard basic human and
democratic rights of the people.
2.11.3 It will legislate and ensure the
execution of the regional laws.
2.11.4 It will ensure an efficient exchange
of goods and services as well as human resources within and among
the autonomous regions.
2.11.5 It will develop, maintain and
safeguard the regional transportation and communication systems.
2.11.6 In cooperation with the Federal
Government, it will safeguard the national resources (forestry, land,
rivers, etc.) of the autonomous regions.
2.l 1.7 It will assist in relief efforts
to help victims of draught and natural disasters in the region. It
will organize and rally aid efforts by having direct contacts with
the Federal Government and international relief agencies.
2.11.8 It will select a common language
(lingua franca) within the region and also ensure the development
of languages of minorities living within the region.
2.11.9 It will spearhead the effort to
enhance the economic, social and cultural development of the region.
It will render adequate health, educational, and other social services
in cooperation with the Federal Government.
2.11.10 In coordination with the Federal
Government, it will collect regional taxes and other dues. It will
also levy and collect taxes in some fields.
2.11.11 It will retain its share of wealth
produced from the natural resources in its region, as determined by
the National Assembly.
2.11.12 It can open offices of trade
and tourism in foreign countries.
2.11.13 The autonomous regional government
will fly its own flag representing the region.
However, the national flag will also
be flown on all Federal establishments and offices in the region.
2.11.14 It will fulfill all other duties
as mandated by the National Assembly and the Regional Assemblies.