Foreword

The reality in Ethiopia

The future of Ethiopia

 


Part II: POLITICAL STRUCTURE

2.1 FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

Ethiopia will be a Federal Democratic Republic with self-governing autonomous regions. These regions will be determined by a national assembly composed of representatives from the population, in accordance with the constitution. The constitution will be drafted by an elected constituent assembly that represents the people at large and it shall be ratified in a referendum.

2.2 NATIONAL FLAG

The national flag as represented by green, yellow, and red colors, a historically and internationally recognized symbol of Ethiopian identity, will remain unchanged and be flown in all the republic's regions and government bodies as well as foreign embassies and consulates.

2.3 GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE

Ethiopia will have two basic state structures, as defined in the constitution.

2.3.1 Federal (Central) Government

2.3.2 Autonomous Regional Governments

2.4 GOVERNMENT BRANCHES

There will be three branches of government in each of the two state structures.

2.4.1 Legislative

2.4.2 Executive

2.4.3 Judiciary

2.5 NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

2.5.1;There will be a Federal National Assembly composed of representatives from the people elected according to the democratic principle of "one person one vote." Election rules and procedures will be determined by law.

2.5.2;Based on the constitution, the National Assembly will be the highest authority of the Federal Government. The leader of the political party or of a coalition, with the majority of members in the National Assembly, will lead the administration of the Federal government as its Prime Minster.

2.5.3;In case of conflict, the Federal law will have precedence over the autonomous regional laws.

2.6 PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC

2.6.1 The President of the Federal Republic will be elected from among the National Assembly members. (S)he will be elected by members of the National Assembly to be the head of state for a limited term.

2.6.2 The president's authority, responsibilities and term of office will be determined by the constitution.

2.7 AUTONOMOUS REGIONAL ASSEMBLIES

2.7.1 There will be a Regional Assembly in each autonomous region. The Assembly will

consist of all the representatives from the region who will be elected according to the democratic principle of "one person one vote." The election rules and regulations for the Assembly will be determined by law.

2.7.2 The Regional Assembly is the source of authority of the autonomous region. The election, authority, and responsibilities of the executive branch will be determined by the constitution.

2.8 COURTS OF LAW

The courts of the land will be divided into two.

2.8.1 Federal Courts

2.8.2 Autonomous Regional Courts

2.9 APPEALS COURTS.

2.9.1 Appeals Courts will be established in both the Federal and Regional state structures.

2.9.2 The Federal Supreme Court will be the ultimate authority to safeguard the citizens' basic human and democratic rights as well as being the country's highest court of appeal.

2.9.3 The Federal Supreme Court will interpret the country's laws, based on the constitution.

2.10 THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES

2.10.1 The Federal Government represents all the Ethiopian people and safeguards their national interests. The central government will have the following authority and responsibilities mandated by the constitution.

2.10.2 It will legislate and execute laws so as to meet its national responsibilities.

2.10.3 It will coordinate the administration of the Autonomous Regions.

2.10.4 It will ensure peace and stability in the country. It will safeguard the human and democratic rights of the people.

2.10.5 It will ensure the growth of an efficient free trade system among the economies of the Autonomous Regions, including the free flow of people, goods and services across open borders.

2.10.6 It will ensure extension and development of transportation and communication networks among the Autonomous Regions.

2.10.7 It shall have jurisdiction over the National Bank and oversee the printing of notes and minting of coins and the valuation and distribution of same.

2.10.8 It will establish one common national currency. It will produce national guidelines, laws, rules, and regulations for national finance and budgetary policies. It will implement these, once approved by the Federal Assembly.

2.10.9 In cooperation with the Autonomous Regional governments, it will build basic and key infrastructural networks to enhance economic development. These include, among few other limited joint operations, mining, power sources as well as land, sea, and air transportation systems.

2.10.10 It will direct and coordinate the country's foreign trade.

2.10.11 As determined by the Federal Assembly, it will issue guidelines to generate and collect revenue for the central government by means of taxation and other fiscal measures.

2.10.12 It will initiate and direct foreign policy, establish diplomatic relations with foreign nations and sign international agreements.

2.10.13 It will defend the country from foreign aggression, and upon the approval of the National Assembly will declare war and sign peace treaties. It will safeguard the internationally recognized boundaries of Ethiopia including its islands, ports, and sea accesses.

2.10.14 It will direct the National Defence Forces (ground, sea, and air). It will ensure that the forces reflect the national character of Ethiopia. It will also ensure that the defence forces are free of political influences and maintain their professional character without playing any political role in the country.

2.10.15;It will select, promote and enhance the working language of the Federal Government.

2.10.16;It will give special attention to the betterment of less developed autonomous regions.

2.10.17;In cooperation with the regional autonomous governments, it will protect and develop the national wealth (forestry, rivers, land, etc.). It will establish governmental institutions to achieve national goals and objectives. It will own properties that will enable it to carry out its federal responsibilities.

2.10.18;It will execute all other resolutions made by the Federal Assembly.

2.11 AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENTS

2.11.1 Based on the constitution, each of the autonomous regional governments, as the defender of peace and the vital interests of the people, will have the following powers and responsibilities.

2.11.2 It will be the superior administrator of the autonomous regions. It will also safeguard basic human and democratic rights of the people.

2.11.3 It will legislate and ensure the execution of the regional laws.

2.11.4 It will ensure an efficient exchange of goods and services as well as human resources within and among the autonomous regions.

2.11.5 It will develop, maintain and safeguard the regional transportation and communication systems.

2.11.6 In cooperation with the Federal Government, it will safeguard the national resources (forestry, land, rivers, etc.) of the autonomous regions.

2.l 1.7 It will assist in relief efforts to help victims of draught and natural disasters in the region. It will organize and rally aid efforts by having direct contacts with the Federal Government and international relief agencies.

2.11.8 It will select a common language (lingua franca) within the region and also ensure the development of languages of minorities living within the region.

2.11.9 It will spearhead the effort to enhance the economic, social and cultural development of the region. It will render adequate health, educational, and other social services in cooperation with the Federal Government.

2.11.10 In coordination with the Federal Government, it will collect regional taxes and other dues. It will also levy and collect taxes in some fields.

2.11.11 It will retain its share of wealth produced from the natural resources in its region, as determined by the National Assembly.

2.11.12 It can open offices of trade and tourism in foreign countries.

2.11.13 The autonomous regional government will fly its own flag representing the region.

However, the national flag will also be flown on all Federal establishments and offices in the region.

2.11.14 It will fulfill all other duties as mandated by the National Assembly and the Regional Assemblies.

 

save Ethiopia and promote its enduring progress by supporting the policies, participating in its program and most importantly by joining the

Ethiopian Medhin Democratic Party (MEDHIN)